Englisch-Deutsch Übersetzung für 2-beam bridge crane und Beispielübersetzungen aus technischen Dokumentationen. 2- Trägerbrückenlaufkran, Brückenkran. Übersetzungen für crâne im Französisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:crâne, forme du crâne, ne rien avoir dans le crâne, avoir le crâne dur, bourrer. Übersetzung für 'crane' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.
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For stability, the sum of all moments about the base of the crane must be close to zero so that the crane does not overturn. These requirements, along with additional safety-related aspects of crane design, are established by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers  in the volume ASME B Standards for cranes mounted on ships or offshore platforms are somewhat stricter because of the dynamic load on the crane due to vessel motion.
Additionally, the stability of the vessel or platform must be considered. For stationary pedestal or kingpost mounted cranes, the moment created by the boom, jib, and load is resisted by the pedestal base or kingpost.
Stress within the base must be less than the yield stress of the material or the crane will fail. There are four principal types of mobile cranes: A truck -mounted crane has two parts: These are mated together through a turntable, allowing the upper to swing from side to side.
These modern hydraulic truck cranes are usually single-engine machines, with the same engine powering the undercarriage and the crane.
The upper is usually powered via hydraulics run through the turntable from the pump mounted on the lower. In older model designs of hydraulic truck cranes, there were two engines.
One in the lower pulled the crane down the road and ran a hydraulic pump for the outriggers and jacks. The one in the upper ran the upper through a hydraulic pump of its own.
Many older operators favor the two-engine system due to leaking seals in the turntable of aging newer design cranes. Generally, these cranes are able to travel on highways, eliminating the need for special equipment to transport the crane unless weight or other size constrictions are in place such as local laws.
If this is the case, most larger cranes are equipped with either special trailers to help spread the load over more axles or are able to disassemble to meet requirements.
An example is counterweights. Often a crane will be followed by another truck hauling the counterweights that are removed for travel.
In addition some cranes are able to remove the entire upper. However, this is usually only an issue in a large crane and mostly done with a conventional crane such as a Link-Belt HC When working on the job site, outriggers are extended horizontally from the chassis then vertically to level and stabilize the crane while stationary and hoisting.
Many truck cranes have slow-travelling capability a few miles per hour while suspending a load. Great care must be taken not to swing the load sideways from the direction of travel, as most anti-tipping stability then lies in the stiffness of the chassis suspension.
Most cranes of this type also have moving counterweights for stabilization beyond that provided by the outriggers. Loads suspended directly aft are the most stable, since most of the weight of the crane acts as a counterweight.
Factory-calculated charts or electronic safeguards are used by crane operators to determine the maximum safe loads for stationary outriggered work as well as on-rubber loads and travelling speeds.
Truck cranes range in lifting capacity from about Although most only rotate about degrees, the more expensive truck mounted cranes can turn a full degrees.
A rough terrain crane has a boom mounted on an undercarriage atop four rubber tires that is designed for off-road pick-and-carry operations.
Outriggers are used to level and stabilize the crane for hoisting. These telescopic cranes are single-engine machines, with the same engine powering the undercarriage and the crane, similar to a crawler crane.
The engine is usually mounted in the undercarriage rather than in the upper, as with crawler crane. Most have 4 wheel drive and 4 wheel steering for traversing tighter and slicker terrain than a standard truck crane, with less site prep.
A crawler crane has its boom mounted on an undercarriage fitted with a set of crawler tracks that provide both stability and mobility.
Crawler cranes range in lifting capacity from about 40 to 3, short tons The main advantage of a crawler crane is its ready mobility and use, since the crane is able to operate on sites with minimal improvement and stable on its tracks without outriggers.
Wide tracks spread the weight out over a great area and are far better than wheels at traversing soft ground without sinking in. A crawler crane is also capable of traveling with a load.
Its main disadvantage is its weight, making it difficult and expensive to transport. Typically a large crawler must be disassembled at least into boom and cab and moved by trucks, rail cars or ships to its next location.
Floating cranes are used mainly in bridge building and port construction, but they are also used for occasional loading and unloading of especially heavy or awkward loads on and off ships.
Floating cranes have also been used to salvage sunken ships. Crane vessels are often used in offshore construction. The largest revolving cranes can be found on SSCV Thialf , which has two cranes with a capacity of 7, tonnes 7, short tons ; 6, long tons each.
The crane was sold to the Panama Canal in where it is now known as the "Titan. An all-terrain crane is a hybrid combining the roadability of a truck-mounted and on-site maneuverability of a rough-terrain crane.
It can both travel at speed on public roads and maneuver on rough terrain at the job site using all-wheel and crab steering. A pick and carry crane is similar to a mobile crane in that is designed to travel on public roads; however, Pick and Carry cranes have no stabiliser legs or outriggers and are designed to lift the load and carry it to its destination, within a small radius, then be able to drive to the next job.
Pick and Carry cranes are popular in Australia where large distances are encountered between job sites. One popular manufacturer in Australia was Franna, who have since been bought by Terex, and now all Pick and Carry cranes are commonly referred to as "Frannas" even though they may be made by other manufacturers.
Nearly every medium and large sized crane company in Australia has at least one and many companies have fleets of these cranes. The capacity range is usually ten to twenty tonnes maximum lift, although this is much less at the tip of the boom.
Pick and Carry cranes have displaced the work usually completed by smaller truck cranes as the set-up time is much quicker.
Many steel fabrication yards also use Pick and Carry cranes as they can "walk" with fabricated steel sections and place these where required with relative ease.
A sidelifter crane is a road-going truck or semi-trailer , able to hoist and transport ISO standard containers. Container lift is done with parallel crane-like hoists, which can lift a container from the ground or from a railway vehicle.
A carry deck crane is a small 4 wheel crane with a degree rotating boom placed right in the centre and an operators cab located at one end under this boom.
The rear section houses the engine and the area above the wheels is a flat deck. Very much an American invention the Carry deck can hoist a load in a confined space and then load it on the deck space around the cab or engine and subsequently move to another site.
The Carry Deck principle is the American version of the pick and carry crane and both allow the load to be moved by the crane over short distances.
Telescopic handlers are like forklift trucks that have a telescoping extendable boom like a crane. Early telescopic handlers only lifted in one direction and did not rotate;  however, several of the manufacturers have designed telescopic handlers that rotate degrees through a turntable and these machines look almost identical to the Rough Terrain Crane.
These machines are often used to handle pallets of bricks and install frame trusses on many new building sites and they have eroded much of the work for small telescopic truck cranes.
Their off-road capability and their on site versatility to unload pallets using forks, or lift like a crane make them a valuable piece of machinery.
A railroad crane has flanged wheels for use on railroads. The simplest form is a crane mounted on a flatcar. More capable devices are purpose-built.
Different types of crane are used for maintenance work , recovery operations and freight loading in goods yards and scrap handling facilities.
Helicopters are able to travel to and lift in areas that are difficult to reach by conventional cranes. They can lift anything within their lifting capacity, cars, boats, swimming pools, etc.
They also perform disaster relief after natural disasters for clean-up, and during wild-fires they are able to carry huge buckets of water to extinguish fires.
Some aerial cranes, mostly concepts, have also used lighter-than air aircraft, such as airships. Exchanging mobility for the ability to carry greater loads and reach greater heights due to increased stability, these types of cranes are characterised by the fact that their main structure does not move during the period of use.
However, many can still be assembled and disassembled. The structures basically are fixed in one place. Tower cranes are a modern form of balance crane that consist of the same basic parts.
Fixed to the ground on a concrete slab and sometimes attached to the sides of structures , tower cranes often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in the construction of tall buildings.
The base is then attached to the mast which gives the crane its height. Further, the mast is attached to the slewing unit gear and motor that allows the crane to rotate.
On top of the slewing unit there are three main parts which are: Optimization of tower crane location in the construction sites has an important effect on material transportation costs of a project .
The long horizontal jib is the part of the crane that carries the load. The counter-jib carries a counterweight, usually of concrete blocks, while the jib suspends the load to and from the center of the crane.
The crane operator either sits in a cab at the top of the tower or controls the crane by radio remote control from the ground. The lifting hook is operated by the crane operator using electric motors to manipulate wire rope cables through a system of sheaves.
The hook is located on the long horizontal arm to lift the load which also contains its motor. They are most often in radio contact, and always use hand signals.
The rigger or dogger directs the schedule of lifts for the crane, and is responsible for the safety of the rigging and loads.
Tower cranes are used extensively in construction and other industry to hoist and move materials. There are many types of tower cranes.
Although they are different in type, the main parts are the same, as follows:. A tower crane is usually assembled by a telescopic jib mobile crane of greater reach also see "self-erecting crane" below and in the case of tower cranes that have risen while constructing very tall skyscrapers, a smaller crane or derrick will often be lifted to the roof of the completed tower to dismantle the tower crane afterwards, which may be more difficult than the installation.
Each model and distinctive style of tower crane has a predetermined lifting chart that can be applied to any radii available depending on its configuration.
Similar to a mobile crane, a tower crane may lift an object of far greater mass closer to its center of rotation than at its maximum radius.
An operator manipulates several levers and pedals to control each function of the crane. Generally a type of pedestrian operated tower crane.
Self erecting tower cranes are transported as a single unit and can be assembled by a qualified technician without the assistance of a larger mobile crane.
In some cases, smaller self-erecting tower cranes may have axles permanently fitted to the tower section to make maneuvering the crane onsite easier.
For a video of a crane getting taller, see here: For another animation of such a crane in use see this video: A telescopic crane has a boom that consists of a number of tubes fitted one inside the other.
A hydraulic cylinder or other powered mechanism extends or retracts the tubes to increase or decrease the total length of the boom.
These types of booms are often used for short term construction projects, rescue jobs, lifting boats in and out of the water, etc.
The relative compactness of telescopic booms makes them adaptable for many mobile applications. A telescopic tower crane has a telescopic mast and often a superstructure jib on top so that it functions as a tower crane.
Some telescopic tower cranes also have a telescopic jib. The "hammerhead", or giant cantilever , crane is a fixed- jib crane consisting of a steel-braced tower on which revolves a large, horizontal, double cantilever ; the forward part of this cantilever or jib carries the lifting trolley, the jib is extended backwards in order to form a support for the machinery and counterbalancing weight.
In addition to the motions of lifting and revolving, there is provided a so-called "racking" motion, by which the lifting trolley, with the load suspended, can be moved in and out along the jib without altering the level of the load.
Such horizontal movement of the load is a marked feature of later crane design. The design of Hammerkran evolved first in Germany around the turn of the 19th century and was adopted and developed for use in British shipyards to support the battleship construction program from to The ability of the hammerhead crane to lift heavy weights was useful for installing large pieces of battleships such as armour plate and gun barrels.
Giant cantilever cranes were also installed in naval shipyards in Japan and in the United States. The British government also installed a giant cantilever crane at the Singapore Naval Base and later a copy of the crane was installed at Garden Island Naval Dockyard in Sydney These cranes provided repair support for the battle fleet operating far from Great Britain.
Among the sixty built in the world, few remain; seven in England and Scotland of about fifteen worldwide. The Titan Clydebank is one of the 4 Scottish cranes on the Clydebank and preserved as a tourist attraction.
Normally a crane with a hinged jib will tend to have its hook also move up and down as the jib moves or luffs. A level luffing crane is a crane of this common design, but with an extra mechanism to keep the hook level when luffing.
An overhead crane , also known as a bridge crane, is a type of crane where the hook-and-line mechanism runs along a horizontal beam that itself runs along two widely separated rails.
It is similar to a gantry crane. Overhead cranes typically consist of either a single beam or a double beam construction.
These can be built using typical steel beams or a more complex box girder type. Pictured on the right is a single bridge box girder crane with the hoist and system operated with a control pendant.
Double girder bridge are more typical when needing heavier capacity systems from 10 tons and above. The advantage of the box girder type configuration results in a system that has a lower deadweight yet a stronger overall system integrity.
Also included would be a hoist to lift the items, the bridge, which spans the area covered by the crane, and a trolley to move along the bridge.
The most common overhead crane use is in the steel industry. At every step of the manufacturing process, until it leaves a factory as a finished product, steel is handled by an overhead crane.
Raw materials are poured into a furnace by crane, hot steel is stored for cooling by an overhead crane, the finished coils are lifted and loaded onto trucks and trains by overhead crane, and the fabricator or stamper uses an overhead crane to handle the steel in his factory.
The automobile industry uses overhead cranes for handling of raw materials. Smaller workstation cranes handle lighter loads in a work-area, such as CNC mill or saw.
Almost all paper mills use bridge cranes for regular maintenance requiring removal of heavy press rolls and other equipment. The bridge cranes are used in the initial construction of paper machines because they facilitate installation of the heavy cast iron paper drying drums and other massive equipment, some weighing as much as 70 tons.
In many instances the cost of a bridge crane can be largely offset with savings from not renting mobile cranes in the construction of a facility that uses a lot of heavy process equipment.
A gantry crane has a hoist in a fixed machinery house or on a trolley that runs horizontally along rails, usually fitted on a single beam mono-girder or two beams twin-girder.
The crane frame is supported on a gantry system with equalized beams and wheels that run on the gantry rail, usually perpendicular to the trolley travel direction.
Most species of cranes have been affected by human activities and are at the least classified as threatened, if not critically endangered.
The plight of the whooping cranes of North America inspired some of the first US legislation to protect endangered species. They are long-legged and long-necked birds with streamlined bodies and large, rounded wings.
The males and females do not vary in external appearance, but males tend to be slightly larger than females. The plumage of cranes varies by habitat.
Species inhabiting vast, open wetlands tend to have more white in their plumage than do species that inhabit smaller wetlands or forested habitats, which tend to be more grey.
These white species are also generally larger. The smaller size and colour of the forest species is thought to help them maintain a less conspicuous profile while nesting; two of these species the common and sandhill cranes also daub their feathers with mud to further hide while nesting.
Most species of cranes have some areas of bare skin on their faces; the only two exceptions are the blue and demoiselle cranes.
This skin is used in communication with other cranes, and can be expanded by contracting and relaxing muscles, and change the intensity of colour.
Feathers on the head can be moved and erected in the blue, wattled, and demoiselle cranes for signaling, as well. Also important to communication is the position and length of the trachea.
In the two crowned cranes, the trachea is shorter and only slightly impressed upon the bone of the sternum , whereas the trachea of the other species is longer and penetrates the sternum.
The cranes have a cosmopolitan distribution , occurring across most of the world continents. They are absent from Antarctica and, mysteriously, South America.
East Asia is the centre of crane diversity, with eight species, followed by Africa, which holds five resident species and wintering populations of a sixth.
Of the four crane genera, Balearica two species is restricted to Africa, and Leucogeranus one species is restricted to Asia; the other two genera, Grus including Anthropoides and Bugeranus and Antigone , are both widespread.
Most species of cranes are dependent on wetlands and require large areas of open space. Most species nest in shallow wetlands. Some species nest in wetlands, but move their chicks up onto grasslands to feed while returning to wetlands at night , whereas others remain in wetlands for the entirety of the breeding season.
Even the demoiselle crane and blue crane, which may nest and feed in grasslands or even arid grasslands or deserts , require wetlands for roosting at night.
The only two species that do not always roost in wetlands are the two African crowned cranes Balearica , which are the only cranes to roost in trees.
Some crane species are sedentary, remaining in the same area throughout the year, while others are highly migratory , travelling thousands of kilometres each year from their breeding sites.
A few species have both migratory and sedentary populations. The cranes are diurnal birds that vary in their sociality by season.
During the breeding season , they are territorial and usually remain on their territory all the time. In contrast in the non-breeding season, they tend to be gregarious, forming large flocks to roost, socialize, and in some species feed.
Species that feed predominately on vegetable matter in the non-breeding season feed in flocks to do so, whereas those that feed on animals usually feed in family groups, joining flocks only during resting periods, or in preparation for travel during migration.
Large aggregations of cranes are important for safety when resting and also as places for young unmated birds to meet others.
Cranes are highly vocal and have a large vocabulary of specialized calls. The vocabulary begins soon after hatching with low, purring calls for maintaining contact with their parents, as well as food-begging calls.
Other calls used as chicks include alarm calls and "flight intention" calls, both of which are maintained into adulthood. They can be used for individual recognition.
The cranes as a family consume a wide range of food, both animal and plant matter. When feeding on land, they consume seeds, leaves, nuts and acorns, berries, fruit, insects, worms, snails, small reptiles, mammals, and birds.
In wetlands, roots, rhizomes, tubers, and other parts of emergent plants, other molluscs, small fish and amphibians are also consumed, as well.
The exact composition of the diet varies by location, season, and availability. Within the wide range of items consumed, some patterns emerge; the shorter-billed species usually feed in drier uplands, while the longer-billed species feed in wetlands.
Cranes employ different foraging techniques for different food types. Tubers and rhizomes are dug for and a crane digging for them remains in place for some time digging and then expanding a hole to find them.
In contrast both to this and the stationary wait and watch hunting methods employed by many herons, they forage for insects and animal prey by slowly moving forwards with their heads lowered and probing with their bills.
Where more than one species of cranes exists in a locality, each species adopts separate niches to minimise competition and niche overlap.
At one important lake in Jiangxi Province in China, the Siberian cranes feed on the mudflats and in shallow water, the white-naped cranes on the wetland borders, the hooded cranes on sedge meadows, and the last two species also feed on the agricultural fields along with the common cranes.
Cranes are perennially monogamous breeders, establishing long-term pair bonds that may last the lifetime of the birds. Pair bonds begin to form in the second or third years of life, but several years pass before the first successful breeding season.
Initial breeding attempts often fail, and in many cases, newer pair bonds dissolve divorce after unsuccessful breeding attempts.
Pairs that are repeatedly successful at breeding remain together for as long as they continue to do so.
Cranes are territorial and generally seasonal breeders. Seasonality varies both between and within species, depending on local conditions.
Migratory species begin breeding upon reaching their summer breeding grounds, between April and June. The breeding season of tropical species, however, is usually timed to coincide with the wet or monsoon seasons.
Territory sizes also vary depending on location. Tropical species can maintain very small territories, for example sarus cranes in India can breed on territories as small as one hectare where the area is of sufficient quality and disturbance by humans is minimised.
In contrast, red-crowned crane territories may require hectares, and pairs may defend even larger territories than that, up to several thousand hectares.
Territory defence is usually performed by the male. The 15 living species of cranes are placed in four genera.
The fossil record of cranes leaves much to be desired. Apparently, the subfamilies were well distinct by the Late Eocene around 35 mya.
The present genera are apparently some 20 mya old. Biogeography of known fossil and the living taxa of cranes suggests that the group is probably of Laurasian?
The extant diversity at the genus level is centered on eastern Africa , making it all the more regrettable that no decent fossil record exists from there.
On the other hand, it is peculiar that numerous fossils of Ciconiiformes are documented from there; these birds presumably shared much of their habitat with cranes back then already.
Cranes are sister taxa to Eogruidae , a lineage of flightless birds; as predicted by the fossil record of true cranes, eogruids were native to the Old World.
A species of true crane, Grus cubensis , has similarly become flightless and ratite-like. See The Satanic Verses for the best-known story regarding these three goddesses.
In China , several styles of kung fu take inspiration from the movements of cranes in the wild, the most famous of these styles being Wing Chun, Hung Gar tiger crane , and the Shaolin Five Animals style of fighting.
Crane movements are well known for their fluidity and grace. The crane was a bird of omen. In the tale of Ibycus and the cranes, a thief attacked Ibycus a poet of the sixth century BCE and left him for dead.Struthioniformes ostriches Rheiformes rheas Tinamiformes tinamous Apterygiformes kiwis Casuariiformes emus and cassowaries. During development of cranes, load level casino zoo load can be significantly increased by taking into account the IIW recommendations the International Institute of Welding Technology IIW published the Guideline "Recommendations for the HFMI Pokerstars deutschland in leads in casino cf.com cases to an increase of the permissible lifting load and thus to an efficiency increase. The jib may swing through an arc, to give additional lateral movement, 2.französische liga be fixed. Great care must be taken not to swing the load sideways from the direction of travel, as most gsw nba stability then lies in the stiffness of the chassis suspension. The automobile industry uses overhead cranes for handling of raw materials. Otidimorphae Cuculiformes cuckoos Musophagiformes turacos Otidiformes bustards. See The Satanic Verses for the best-known story regarding these three goddesses. Outriggers are used to level and stabilize casino zoo crane for hoisting. The exact process by which the treadwheel crane was casino 13 is not recorded,  although its return to construction sites has undoubtedly to be viewed in grösste casino europas connection with the simultaneous rise of Gothic architecture. Em heut crane types featured casino toronto pulleys pentaspastos or, in case of the largest one, a set of three by five pulleys Polyspastos and came with two, three or four masts, depending on the maximum load. Both parents help to rear the young, which remain with them until crane deutsch next breeding season. This page was last edited on 31 Januaryat Views View Edit Edit source History. Ibycus called to a flock of passing cranes, which followed the attacker to a theater and hovered over him until, stricken with guilt, he confessed to the crime. Giant cantilever cranes were also installed in naval shipyards in Japan and in the United States.